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These cases were restricted to a few verses or shorter passages. However, recent studies claim to have identified samples of greater extent. These differ from previously isolated examples in that they span a number of passages or even several chapters of the book. Applying this approach to the whole book, some scholars claim that the entire book of Isaiah may be divided into two major sections, of equal length. While some rejected this view, others accepted the possibility, but adjusted the proposal. Others found different, but related traits in the book.

The debate and studies around this issue continue. In Part II the matter will be taken further. Abegg, MG The Hebrew Bible and the Judaean Desert discoveries. Allis, OT The unity of Isaiah. A study in prophecy. London: Tyndale. Ben Zvi, E Understanding the message of the tripartite prophetic books, RQ 35 2 , Biddle, ME JSOT Supp series Sheffield: Academic Press, Brownlee, WH The meaning of the Qumran Scrolls for the Bible with special attention to the book of Isaiah. NY: Oxford University Press. A holistic structure of the book of Isaiah.

Brigham Young University. Ezekiel Word Biblical Commentary. Waco, Texas: Word Books. Studies of an interpretive tradition Vol.

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Leiden: Brill. RevExp 65, Carr, DM Reaching for unity in Isaiah. JSOT 57 , Conrad, EW Reading Isaiah. Overtures to Biblical Theology. Minneapolis: Fortress. Cook, J Cuddon, JA Dictionary of literary terms and literary theory. London: Penguin Books. Deist, FE Towards the text of the Old Testament. Pretoria: D. Church Booksellers. An introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. Du Preez, J Die koms van die Koninkryk volgens die boek Openbaring. Annale US Vol 2, serie B nr 1. Kaap: Nasionale Boekdrukkery. Evans, CA On the unity and parallel structure of Isaiah, VT 38 2 , Flint, PW Follis, ER ed.

Directions in Biblical Hebrew poetry.

Supplement Series Sheffield: JSOT. Giese, RL jr Further evidence for the bisection of 1QIsa sic. Textus 14 Gileadi, A The apocalyptic book of Isaiah. A new translation with interpretive key. Provo, Utah: Hebraeus Press. The literary message of Isaiah. NY: Hebraeus Press. Harrison, RK Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. The Bible as book. Liebreich, LJ Macey, D Dictionary of critical theory.

Makins, M ed. Collins English Dictionary. Glasgow: Harper Collins Publishers. New Visions of Isaiah. Sheffield: Academic Press. Melugin, RF The changing face of form criticism for the twenty-first century. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, O'Connell, RH Concentricity and continuity. The literary structure of Isaiah. The Oxford English Reference Dictionary. Oxford: University Press. Interpreting Hebrew poetry.

Basics of Biblical Hebrew - Session 1 - The Hebrew Alphabet

Richards, KH A note on the bisection of Isaiah. RevQ 5 , Seitz, CR ed Reading and preaching the book of Isaiah. Philadelphia: Fortress. Stansell, G Sterk, JP Sweeney, MA Isaiah 1 - 39 with an introduction to the prophetic literature. The Prophetic Literature. Nashville: Abingdon Press. Tomasino, AJ Tov, E Leiden: Brill, Watson, WGE Classical Hebrew poetry. A guide to its techniques Supplement series Watts, JDW Isaiah Welch, JW ed.

Chiasmus in antiquity. Structures, analyses, exegesis. Provo, Utah: Research Press. Chiasmus Bibliography.


A Manual of Hebrew Poetics

See Gileadi footnotes 1 and 2. Introduction Advancing recent approaches of reading the book of Isaiah as literature, some scholars have concluded that the book is dominated by particular literary structures which serve the rhetoric of the book. SCOPE The study of Isaiah as a literary composition with special reference to parallelism is based upon at least three interrelated approaches. The present study briefly explores the approach applied by the second group.

Angle of incidence For the purpose of this study, and generally speaking, one type of parallelism, namely the chiastic pattern see e. However, the "I" could also be characterising an individual's personal experience that was reflective of the entire community. Royal psalms , dealing with such matters as the king's coronation, marriage and battles. Individual laments lamenting the fate of the particular individual who utters them.

They are by far the most common type of psalm. They typically open with an invocation of God, followed by the lament itself and pleas for help, and often ending with an expression of confidence. A subset is the psalm of confidence, in which the psalmist expresses confidence that God will deliver him from evils and enemies. Individual thanksgiving psalms , the opposite of individual laments, in which the psalmist thanks God for deliverance from personal distress.

In addition to these five major genres, Gunkel also recognised a number of minor psalm-types, including:. The composition of the psalms spans at least five centuries, from Psalm 29 , possibly an Israelite adaptation of an entire Canaanite hymn to Baal , [20] to others clearly from the post-Exilic period not earlier than the fifth century B. The majority originated in the southern kingdom of Judah and were associated with the Temple in Jerusalem , where they probably functioned as libretto during the Temple worship. Exactly how they did this is unclear, although there are indications in some of them: "Bind the festal procession with branches, up to the horns of the altar," suggests a connection with sacrifices, and "Let my prayer be counted as incense" suggests a connection with the offering of incense.

The biblical poetry of Psalms uses parallelism as its primary poetic device. Parallelism is a kind of symmetry , in which an idea is developed by the use of restatement, synonym, amplification, grammatical repetition, or opposition. An example of synonymous parallelism:. Two lines expressing opposites is known as antithetic parallelism.

An example of antithetic parallelism:. Two clauses expressing the idea of amplifying the first claim is known as expansive parallelism. An example of expansive parallelism:. Many scholars believe the individual Psalms were redacted into a single collection in Second-Temple times. In time, this approach developed into recognizing overarching themes shared by whole groups of psalms. In , Gerald H. Wilson 's The Editing of the Hebrew Psalter proposed — by parallel with other ancient eastern hymn collections — that psalms at the beginning and end or "seams" of the five books of Psalms have thematic significance, corresponding in particular with the placement of the royal psalms.

He pointed out that there was a progression of ideas, from adversity, through the crux of the collection in the apparent failure of the covenant in Psalm 89, leading to a concert of praise at the end. He concluded that the collection was redacted to be a retrospective of the failure of the Davidic covenant , exhorting Israel to trust in God alone in a non-messianic future.

Psalm 1 calls the reader to a life of obedience; Psalm 73 Brueggemann's crux psalm faces the crisis when divine faithfulness is in doubt; Psalm represents faith's triumph, when God is praised not for his rewards, but for his being. Mitchell's The Message of the Psalter took a quite different line. Building on the work of Wilson and others, [26] Mitchell proposed that the Psalter embodies an eschatological timetable like that of Zechariah 9— These three views—Wilson's non-messianic retrospective of the Davidic covenant, Brueggemann's sapiential instruction, and Mitchell's eschatologico-messianic programme—all have their followers, although the sapiential agenda has been somewhat eclipsed by the other two.

Shortly before his untimely death in , Wilson modified his position to allow for the existence of messianic prophecy within the Psalms' redactional agenda. The Psalms were written not merely as poems, but as songs for singing. More than a third of the psalms are addressed to the Director of Music. Some psalms exhort the worshipper to sing e. Some headings denote the musical instruments on which the psalm should be played Pss. Some refer to singing at the sheminit or octave Pss. And others preserve the name for ancient eastern modes, like mut la-ben Death of the son; Ps.

Despite the frequently heard view that their ancient music is lost, the means to reconstruct it are still extant. Fragments of temple psalmody are preserved in ancient church and synagogue chant, particularly in the tonus peregrinus melody to Psalm Regardless of academic research, Sephardic Jews have retained a tradition in the Masoretic cantillation. Most individual psalms involve the praise of God—for his power and beneficence, for his creation of the world, and for his past acts of deliverance for Israel. The psalms envision a world in which everyone and everything will praise God, and God in turn will hear their prayers and respond.

Worst of all is when God "hides his face" and refuses to respond, because this puts in question the efficacy of prayer which is the underlying assumption of the Book of Psalms. Some psalms are called " maskil " maschil because in addition they impart wisdom. Most notable of these is Psalm which is sometimes called the "Maskil of David", others include Psalm 32 and Psalm Individual psalms were originally hymns, to be used on various occasions and at various sacred sites; later, some were anthologised, and might have been understood within the various anthologies e.

In later Jewish and Christian tradition, the psalms have come to be used as prayers, either individual or communal, as traditional expressions of religious feeling. Psalms are used throughout traditional Jewish worship. Many complete Psalms and verses from Psalms appear in the morning services Shacharit. The pesukei dezimra component incorporates Psalms 30, and — Psalm commonly referred to as " Ashrei ", which is really the first word of two verses appended to the beginning of the Psalm , is read three times every day: once in shacharit as part of pesukei dezimrah , as mentioned, once, along with Psalm 20, as part of the morning's concluding prayers , and once at the start of the afternoon service.

On Festival days and Sabbaths, instead of concluding the morning service, it precedes the Mussaf service. Psalms 95—99, 29, 92, and 93, along with some later readings, comprise the introduction Kabbalat Shabbat to the Friday night service. Traditionally, a different "Psalm for the Day"— Shir shel yom —is read after the morning service each day of the week starting Sunday, Psalms: 24, 48, 82, 94, 81, 93, This is described in the Mishnah the initial codification of the Jewish oral tradition in the tractate Tamid.

According to the Talmud, these daily Psalms were originally recited on that day of the week by the Levites in the Temple in Jerusalem.

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From Rosh Chodesh Elul until Hoshanah Rabbah , Psalm 27 is recited twice daily following the morning and evening services. There is a Minhag custom to recite Psalm 30 each morning of Chanukkah after Shacharit: some recite this in place of the regular "Psalm for the Day", others recite this additionally. When a Jew dies, a watch is kept over the body and tehillim Psalms are recited constantly by sun or candlelight, until the burial service. Historically, this watch would be carried out by the immediate family, usually in shifts, but in contemporary practice this service is provided by an employee of the funeral home or chevra kadisha.

Many Jews complete the Book of Psalms on a weekly or monthly basis. Each week, some also say a Psalm connected to that week's events or the Torah portion read during that week. In addition, many Jews notably Lubavitch , and other Chasidim read the entire Book of Psalms prior to the morning service, on the Sabbath preceding the calculated appearance of the new moon. The reading of psalms is viewed in Jewish tradition as a vehicle for gaining God's favor. They are thus often specially recited in times of trouble, such as poverty, disease, or physical danger; in many synagogues, Psalms are recited after services for the security of the State of Israel.

Sefer ha-Chinuch [43] states that this practice is designed not to achieve favor, as such, but rather to inculcate belief in Divine Providence into one's consciousness, consistently with Maimonides ' general view on Providence. New Testament references show that the earliest Christians used the Psalms in worship, and the Psalms have remained an important part of worship in most Christian Churches. The Eastern Orthodox , Catholic , Presbyterian , Lutheran and Anglican Churches have always made systematic use of the Psalms, with a cycle for the recitation of all or most of them over the course of one or more weeks.

In the early centuries of the Church, it was expected that any candidate for bishop would be able to recite the entire Psalter from memory, something they often learned automatically [45] during their time as monks. Paul the Apostle quotes psalms specifically Psalms 14 and 53 , which are nearly identical as the basis for his theory of original sin , and includes the scripture in the Epistle to the Romans , chapter 3. Several conservative Protestant denominations sing only the Psalms some churches also sing the small number of hymns found elsewhere in the Bible in worship, and do not accept the use of any non-Biblical hymns; examples are the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America , the Presbyterian Reformed Church North America and the Free Church of Scotland Continuing.

New translations and settings of the Psalms continue to be produced. An individually printed volume of Psalms for use in Christian religious rituals is called a Psalter. Orthodox Christians and Greek-Catholics Eastern Catholics who follow the Byzantine rite have long made the Psalms an integral part of their corporate and private prayers. The official version of the Psalter used by the Orthodox Church is the Septuagint. At Vespers and Matins , different kathismata are read at different times of the liturgical year and on different days of the week, according to the Church's calendar, so that all psalms 20 kathismata are read in the course of a week.

During Great Lent , the number of kathismata is increased so that the entire Psalter is read twice a week. In the twentieth century, some lay Christians have adopted a continuous reading of the Psalms on weekdays, praying the whole book in four weeks. Aside from kathisma readings, Psalms occupy a prominent place in every other Orthodox service including the services of the Hours and the Divine Liturgy.

In particular, the penitential Psalm 50 is very widely used. Fragments of Psalms and individual verses are used as Prokimena introductions to Scriptural readings and Stichera. The bulk of Vespers would still be composed of Psalms even if the kathisma were to be disregarded; Psalm , "The Psalm of the Law", is the centerpiece of Matins on Saturdays, some Sundays, and the Funeral service. The entire book of Psalms is traditionally read out loud or chanted at the side of the deceased during the time leading up to the funeral, mirroring Jewish tradition.

Several branches of Oriental Orthodox and those Eastern Catholics who follow one of the Oriental Rites will chant the entire Psalter during the course of a day during the Daily Office. This practice continues to be a requirement of monastics in the Oriental churches. The Psalms have always been an important part of Catholic liturgy. The Liturgy of the Hours is centered on chanting or recitation of the Psalms, using fixed melodic formulas known as psalm tones. Early Catholics employed the Psalms widely in their individual prayers also; however, as knowledge of Latin the language of the Roman Rite became uncommon, this practice ceased among the unlearned.

However, until the end of the Middle Ages, it was not unknown for the laity to join in the singing of the Little Office of Our Lady , which was a shortened version of the Liturgy of the Hours providing a fixed daily cycle of twenty-five psalms to be recited, and nine other psalms divided across Matins. The work of Bishop Richard Challoner in providing devotional materials in English meant that many of the psalms were familiar to English-speaking Catholics from the eighteenth century onwards.

Bishop Challoner is also noted for revising the Douay—Rheims Bible , and the translations he used in his devotional books are taken from this work. Until the Second Vatican Council the Psalms were either recited on a one-week or, less commonly as in the case of Ambrosian rite , two-week cycle.

Different one-week schemata were employed: most secular clergy followed the Roman distribution, while Monastic Houses almost universally followed that of St Benedict , with only a few congregations such as the Benedictines of St Maur [ citation needed ] following individualistic arrangements. The Breviary introduced in distributed the psalms over a four-week cycle. Monastic usage varies widely.

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Some use the four-week cycle of the secular clergy, many retain a one-week cycle, either following St Benedict's scheme or another of their own devising, while others opt for some other arrangement. Official approval was also given to other arrangements [Notes 1] by which the complete Psalter is recited in a one-week or two-week cycle. These arrangements are used principally by Catholic contemplative religious orders, such as that of the Trappists.

Over the centuries, the use of complete Psalms in the liturgy declined. After the Second Vatican Council which also permitted the use of vernacular languages in the liturgy , longer psalm texts were reintroduced into the Mass, during the readings. The revision of the Roman Missal after the Second Vatican Council reintroduced the singing or recitation of a more substantial section of a Psalm, in some cases an entire Psalm, after the first Reading from Scripture.

This Psalm, called the Responsorial Psalm, is usually sung or recited responsorially, although the General Instruction of the Roman Missal , 61 permits direct recitation. Following the Protestant Reformation , versified translations of many of the Psalms were set as hymns. These were particularly popular in the Calvinist tradition, where in the past they were typically sung to the exclusion of hymns.

Among famous hymn settings of the Psalter were the Scottish Psalter and the paraphrases by Isaac Watts. By the 20th century, they were mostly replaced by hymns in church services. However, the Psalms are popular for private devotion among many Protestants and still used in many churches for traditional worship. Metrical Psalms are still very popular among many Reformed Churches.